A 15-year-old girl was jailed for failing to submit her online work and Oakland County Circuit Court Judge Mary Ellen Brennan denied her release. First New York, then Iowa, then Arizona: What one nurse’s journey tells us about the country’s coronavirus outbreak. Take the general education courses required to transfer to a four-year program with the Associate of Arts degree from Cincinnati State. The long-running Royal Oak fest will be replaced this year by “The Beats Go On,” aiming to raise $500,000 for musicians affected during the shutdown. Denver Public Schools promises to provide more real-time instruction than existed in the spring.
A 15-year-old girl was jailed for failing to submit her online work and Oakland County Circuit Court Judge Mary Ellen Brennan denied her release.
Grace was on probation for assaulting her mother in November and was charged with assault and theft charges.
“I miss my mom,” Grace said while speaking to the court before Brennan made her decision, “I can control myself. I can be obedient.”
However, the judge didn’t show any mercy. “This morning, for you, unfortunately, is going to get worse before it gets better,” she said.
“Give yourself a chance to follow through and finish something,” Brennan told Grace. “The right thing is for you and your mom to be separated for right now.”
There have been protests rallying for the release of the teen girl. “She is 15 years old.” An activist, Cherisie Evans said, “I don’t understand how a 15-year-old with a problem can be locked up. Where is the counseling? Where are the resources?”
The judge explained that Grace wasn’t being jailed because of remote learning, but because she’s an alleged threat to her mother. “She was not detained because she didn’t turn her homework in,” Brennan explained. “She was detained because she was a threat to her mother.”
According to the judge, Grace fought her mother three times and she bit and pulled her hair during one incident.
A ProPublica profile notes Grace was diagnosed with ADHD and attends a majority white school that didn’t give her the resources she needed to successfully complete remote learning, which is a condition of her probation.
“Who can even be a good student right now?” said Ricky Watson Jr., executive director of the National Juvenile Justice Network. “Unless there is an urgent need, I don’t understand why you would be sending a kid to any facility right now and taking them away from their families with all that we are dealing with right now.”
Protesters are currently outside of the Oakland County Court to demand justice for Grace, the 15-year-old Black student sent to juvenile detention for not doing her online homework.
She was described by the judge as a “threat to the community.” https://t.co/PdWqGecMuJ
Author: Miss2Bees July 22, 2020 Black Lives Matter, Hip hop news
This nurse has traveled from hot spot to hot spot during the Covid-19 pandemic
This past April, nurse Jennifer Byrd left her home in Knoxville, Tennessee, to lend a hand in New York City, which was then under siege by the Covid-19 pandemic. “I felt like I needed to go and help somewhere where help was actually needed,” Byrd says.
Byrd, 31, thought her assignment in a Brooklyn emergency room would be the end of her journey as a traveling nurse during Covid-19. That’s not what happened: Three months later, she’s still on the road. After New York, she went to work at a testing site in Iowa, where the next closest testing location was more than three hours away. Now she’s working in a critical care unit in Arizona, which is quite a change of pace from the ER. She spends a lot more time with patients, allowing her to closely monitor their symptoms in case they begin to deteriorate.
“A lot of patients have definitely been on my heart,” Byrd says.
Health care professionals from across the country have signed up to help during the Covid-19 pandemic by traveling to areas where the disease is spiking. Thousands like Byrd went to New York, the country’s original epicenter, early on, and many have since followed suit. Beyond what they encounter on the front lines of the medical fight, they also have to contend with segments of the population that are eager to move on from the disease, refusing to wear masks and social distance or even doubting the coronavirus really exists. They know firsthand the deadly costs of such attitudes.
“I can sit here and tell you experience after experience that I’ve had in a couple of months, and seeing it firsthand, and people still just don’t believe it,” Byrd says. “It’s so crazy to me. Science doesn’t lie; science is real.”
I spoke with Byrd about her experience as a traveling nurse hopping from contract to contract during the pandemic — why she decided to pitch in, what it’s been like, and how it has (and hasn’t) matched her expectations. She remains hopeful for the future, but not the near future: She’s canceled all her vacations for the year, and she thinks you should, too.
And soon after we spoke, Byrd became ill. A Covid-19 test came back negative, but given her symptoms, she’s all but certain she has the coronavirus. She’s been asked to quarantine by the hospital.
What follows is a transcript of our conversation, lightly edited and condensed for clarity.
How long have you been doing this, and how did you get into it?
I’m from Knoxville, Tennessee, and I worked on staff for a pediatric hospital at home. Our business was really low, so they did a voluntary furlough, and I decided to take it back in April — that’s when Covid was really big in New York. I decided since I couldn’t do much at my home hospital, I could go somewhere else that needed help.
That’s when I took the travel assignment and went to New York City, because I felt like I needed to go and help somewhere where help was actually needed.
So where have you been so far?
I’ve been to New York City, I worked in Brooklyn in an emergency room. [Byrd’s contract was supposed to last for eight weeks, but it ended after four as the number of cases and hospitalizations in the city began to decrease.] Then I went to Iowa to a testing site, and I’m now in Phoenix doing nursing work in a critical care unit.
What’s the work like?
Every day is completely different. When I was in New York I was working in the ER, and now in Phoenix, I’m working in a critical care inpatient setting, which is a little different for me because I’m normally an ER nurse. One day, your patient might just be on two liters of oxygen, and the next time you come in they’re on a breathing machine.
And then with Covid, it’s constantly evolving. One day we’ll give a certain kind of medication, and then a couple days later there’s been new research, so we try a different kind of medication or antibiotics.
What was the New York emergency room like?
It was just crazy. Our patients up there, they tended not to come into the ER for simple stuff, just because they all wanted to stay out of the hospital because Covid was so rampant. So by the time they would come in, they were just really, really sick and would require multiple nurses just to take care of one person. I was supposed to work 12-hour shifts, but I usually wound up working 14-hour shifts because it was so short-staffed.
And you got to New York when it was getting somewhat better, though, right?
When I got there around April 20, it was when things had started to quiet down a little bit. I was expecting to go there and just be inundated with patients all the time, and we really weren’t. It was fewer patients, but they were sicker. The staff told us, if you were here two or three weeks ago, the main ER that I was in was an 18-bed ER, and they had 30 to 40 patients in there.
So we were there on the downside of it, which was good for them. We were thrilled to get there and have it not be as busy, because the staff needs a break. They were exhausted. And the hospital had several nurses pass away of Covid, or who were out for weeks at a time with Covid. So it was nice to know they were finally getting some respite.
And then you went to Iowa? What was that like?
In the state of Iowa, they made it so everyone can get tested regardless of symptoms. I was the team lead for a site there and in charge of three other nurses, and we worked with the National Guard. Basically, that was just having cars come through — we would check their ID, get their test kit, swab them, and then we’d send the swab back at the end of the day. People would get their results back in 72 hours. That was outside in full PPE for long days, and it was so hot every day. None of us were used to that. We were all used to being in a hospital setting.
The site I was at, the next closest site was three and a half hours away, so they were thrilled when we set up in their town and [they] could get tested. We had people driving two hours one way just to get tested.
Most of the patients were asymptomatic and would say they were getting tested because they had contacts with people who had tested positive. And we never knew how people had tested until they came back and would say, “Oh, I was here last week, and I tested positive.” We were up close with positives, and we had no idea — because of how this disease is, people can be totally asymptomatic.
And so now you’re in Arizona, which has had a spike in cases recently.
The unit I’m on is a step-down critical care unit, so we don’t have patients on ventilators, they’re in the ICU. But we do have patients who are on BiPAPs or high-flow oxygen [machines to help with breathing]. The people here, they’re pretty sick — they come in and either quickly end up on oxygen or on a ventilator.
Most of the patients that I’ve had have been in the hospital since the end of June or the beginning of July. Most don’t come in, are here for two days, and then go home. Most are here for a little while because they need oxygen, they need medication. We have people on blood thinners, on plasma, on remdesivir [a drug approved to treat Covid-19]. They’re doing trial medications out here, which is pretty interesting to see.
In all this time traveling around, what’s scared you?
How young the patients are. A lot of non-medical people that I talk to assume it’s older people, it’s people that are diabetic, that have COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] or severe asthma that are getting sick. And that’s not the case at all. I had a patient in New York who was Covid-positive, and we lost her. One minute she was talking to us, and 30 minutes later we were doing CPR on her and we lost her. She was younger than I was, with no medical problems.
The virus doesn’t care how old you are. It doesn’t care how healthy you are. And that’s one thing that really scares me for my friends and family.
What are the obstacles you face when you join a new hospital? What’s it like?
One of the first things I ask when I interview at a hospital is, “How’s your PPE?” because PPE shortages have been a problem area. In New York, Iowa, and Arizona I’ve had plenty of PPE, but I do bring a lot of my own. I have my own respirator. I have my own N95 masks that I bring just in case. That’s one thing I always worry about: Do they have enough stuff to keep me safe?
I have to learn each hospital and how they do things, because every hospital is different. I normally work in an ER, so I’m used to having patients for a very short time, and then they go to the floor or they go home. In Arizona, where I’m in the critical care unit, I have the same patients all night, and figuring that out has been a bit of a challenge. You’re checking on them regularly and their medications, and you keep an eye on them to see if they deteriorate and notify a doctor. With Covid, they can deteriorate so quickly, so you have to pick up on the subtlest changes — a heart rate going up 20 points, or a temperature going up a degree or two. That can all be fine, but it can lead to a patient going septic.
It’s more intense. I’m more aware, and I’m getting to know my patients better. When I’m in the ER setting, a lot of the time I don’t get to know them because I don’t have them very long — and here, I’ve had them for three nights in a row for 12 hours.
A lot of patients have definitely been on my heart. Emotionally, this job in Phoenix is a lot harder than my job in New York because I’m getting to know my patients and their history so much more. I had one patient who was upset about financial issues, and usually I don’t find out about those sorts of things — but here, because of taking care of them for several days, I did. He was so worried financially about being cared for, which as a nurse, I don’t care if he can pay or not. I just want you taken care of, I just want to take care of you the best I can. So to see somebody stressed out and upset about financials, it bothers me.
On the other side of that, most patients aren’t allowed visitors in the hospital — they’re only allowed if it’s an end-of-life situation, and then usually just one person. One of my patients this week hadn’t seen his wife or daughter since he’d been in the hospital, and he had been in the hospital for several weeks. He was in the ICU and got moved down to my unit, and his daughter called to talk to me and check on him. And I asked, well, have you seen your dad? And she said she hadn’t been able to see him or talk to him. And I said, well, if you want to FaceTime him. So I got his cellphone and we planned a time, and I was able to FaceTime his daughter and his wife from his phone. We FaceTimed for about 30 minutes, and they were all so thankful for that.
The little things that bring happy moments make this job just so much more worth it. There are a lot of hard times, but there are happy times too.
Are you surprised at how the pandemic has played out here, with cases rising across the country? Is this what you thought you’d still be doing when you started three months ago?
No, no. Honestly, I expected to go to New York, go home, and go back to my staff job. I did not expect to be doing back-to-back Covid assignments. I didn’t ever think it would get this far.
Do you have to deal with people who think this isn’t real?
All the time. When I’m on Facebook and most news sites, I have had to stop reading comments because I just get so angry at people. On Facebook I’ve unfriended people, including family, because they don’t understand it. They don’t want to wear their masks, or they want to wear it looped around one ear and say they’re wearing a mask when it’s looped around their face. And it’s just like, I can sit here and tell you experience after experience that I’ve had in a couple of months, and seeing it firsthand, and people still just don’t believe it.
It’s so crazy to me. Science doesn’t lie; science is real. I’ve had to deal with people that tell me it’s not real, it’s fake, it’s just the flu. It’s so much more than that. Yes, some people have very minor symptoms, but then there are other people who are 20 years old and on ventilators, and they may not come off of that ventilator. There’s so much science, and people just don’t believe it. It kills me.
Do you have a sense of when you’ll stop?
I’m scheduled to go back to my staff job on September 1, so this should be my last contract. However, things can change at any time. I’ve actually really enjoyed traveling, so I’m thinking eventually I might start traveling full-time. I miss my family, I miss my dogs, so I’m probably going to go back home for a couple of months and rest, and go back to my staff job. It’s been a lot, emotionally and mentally, traveling so much and seeing everything that I have, so I need a break. I need to go back to my wife and our dogs and kind of rest and recoup.
How have the hospitals and communities treated you?
They’ve been amazing. Everyone is so thankful, I think, that people are choosing to come and help them, because they’re just so happy to get extra help.
Are you hopeful about the future and what happens with the pandemic?
I am because I’m a hopeful person. I’m hoping that as we continue to learn more, more people will take it seriously and the experts will be taken more seriously. I am hopeful that it will get better.
However, for most other countries, their first wave is over. Our first wave is not over; we’ve never finished. And [experts] say there’s going to be a second wave, and the second wave is going to be even worse. If we do get that second wave that’s worse, I can only imagine what it’s going to be like. I’m hopeful that eventually it’s going to get better, but it’s going to be a long time before we get to that point.
Even if we get a vaccine, the problem with that is going to be, is it affordable? Can everybody afford it, or is it just certain people who can? And is it going to work? It’s such a new virus, and we don’t have tons of research on it yet.
As someone who’s traveling around taking care of people in this pandemic, is there anything else you’d want people to know?
That it’s real, it’s not fake. That’s my main thing. And then practice hand-washing and social distancing. Stay home. As the weather has warmed up, I see people that are going on vacation because they’ve been cooped up, saying, “Hey, I’m going to Florida, but it’s okay, I’m going to stay in my condo.”
I’ve already canceled a cruise, a trip to Disney World. I’ve already canceled two vacations; I’m going to cancel my beach trip in August. It’s just too soon. Cases are spiking everywhere, and it’s too soon for anyone to be out traveling.
Stay at home to protect not just yourself but to protect your friends, your family, your neighbors. It’s not just you that you’re keeping safe. It’s your community.
I mean, if anyone deserves vacation, it’s you. I want to go on vacation, and I’ve just been sitting on my couch for months.
I love vacation. I would love nothing more than to be laying on a beach right now. But it’s too soon. Not yet. I think next year is going to be my year of vacations.
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Author: Emily Stewart
Associate of Arts (AARTS)
The Associate of Arts degree is designed for students who plan to transfer into a bachelor’s degree program immediately after completing their Cincinnati State degree.
Varies by bachelor’s degree earned
Varies by bachelor’s degree earned
Effective 2020-2021 academic year
Students should consult with their advisor when choosing any electives to ensure maximum transferability of credits. Courses not listed here may be applied to the degree requirements only with the permission of an advisor.
Co-op/Internship Electives must be chosen in consultation with a Co-op Coordinator. Students should meet with their Co-op Coordinator one semester prior to the planned Co-op/Internship semester to choose the appropriate route.
Jennifer (Jen) Martin, MA
Jayne Martin Dressing, MA
Arts, Beats & Eats is off for 2020 — but drive-in and online shows will star 400-plus acts
It’s official: The state’s biggest Labor Day weekend festival is canceled — but will be replaced by a series of drive-in concerts, online performances, food truck events and appointment art viewing.
Soaring Eagle Arts, Beats & Eats was to have marked its 23rd year this September, but as the coronavirus pandemic rolls on, organizers have pulled the plug on the Royal Oak fest.
“We said all along we’d need six weeks to put together an event,” said director Jon Witz. “With the complexity of both the safety protocols needed and the lack of certainty that state policies will be changing, there was no other path for us. It’s just not meant to be for us and other large events in 2020.”
AB&E will instead roll out a slate of activities led by “The Beats Go On,” which aims to present more than 400 local performers and generate up to half a million dollars for area musicians whose work has dried up in recent months.
“We just want to take the resources of our event and our promotional partners to continue the spirit of not only art, music and food, but to make an impact on people that have participated in the past and are in significant need right now,” Witz said.
Most participating artists will stage streaming shows on social-media platforms Aug. 27-Sept. 3. Bands will seek individual donations from the performances, and further benefit from a broader public fundraising campaign being seeded with $10,000 from the Arts, Beats & Eats Foundation.
Details on the distribution of revenue to musicians can be found at artsbeatseats.com.
The public fundraising will likely be supplemented by matching funds from Oakland County, said Dave Woodward, chairman of the Oakland County Board of Commissioners. He said he expects to announce precise details about the county’s contribution during the next week, and is reaching out to peers in Wayne and Macomb to collaborate on direct assistance for affected artists across the region.
“We know that musicians particularly have been hard hit during this pandemic because venues have been closed or operating at reduced capacity,” said Woodward. “We want to lean in, in a significant way.”
The second phase of “The Beats Go On,” Sept. 4-7, will feature 40 acts in drive-in concerts at 6th and Main streets in Royal Oak, traditional site of AB&E’s main music stage. Admission will be $30 per vehicle, with a variety of distancing protocols and other safety guidelines in place.
More: Socially distanced music fest to showcase 50 acts in biggest Detroit concert since March
More: At reopened Motown Museum, it’s familiar old nostalgia and brand-new safety measures
Artists will include AB&E mainstays such as Thornetta Davis, the Reefermen, Orbitsuns, Your Generation in Concert and Larry Lee & the Back in the Day Band.
The fest’s traditional juried arts show will give way this year to “Art By Appointment,” with 20 artists showcasing their work online and scheduling in-person visits with patrons Labor Day weekend — again involving a series of health protocols.
As for food, “Eats on Your Streets” will feature food trucks situated Labor Day weekend in neighborhoods in Royal Oak, Clawson, Berkley, Huntington Woods and Ferndale.
The weekend will also include a 100-person fitness dance (Sept. 5) and 100-person hot yoga class (Sept. 6).
AB&E officials worked with the Oakland County Health Department to craft guidelines for the various gatherings.
Witz, who founded the festival in 1998, has spearheaded a committee of more than 100 Michigan event producers, concert promoters and venue operators, working with Gov. Gretchen Whitmer’s office to devise guidelines for gatherings as Michigan moves through its reopening phases.
Contact Detroit Free Press music writer Brian McCollum: 313-223-4450 or email@example.com.
Read or Share this story: https://www.freep.com/story/entertainment/music/brian-mccollum/2020/07/22/arts-beats-eats-canceled-2020-drive-concerts-online-shows-tap/5485731002/
Author: Brian McCollum, Detroit Free Press
Denver promises its 100% virtual school will be ‘more robust’ than in the spring. Here’s how it would work
Denver students who choose a 100% virtual learning option this fall will receive more real-time instruction than they may have gotten in the spring, according to new information released Tuesday. But students might not be taught by teachers at their school.
The Denver school district clarified that it “will make every effort” to match students who choose the virtual option with teachers from their school. But if the numbers don’t allow for that, students may receive virtual instruction from a teacher at a different school.
The information, posted on Denver Public Schools’ website Tuesday, provides more insight into how the district’s 100% virtual option will work. The district is aiming to provide students more consistency and uniformity than existed in the spring, when the coronavirus forced schools to unexpectedly and quickly shift to remote learning.
Superintendent Susana Cordova said she hopes that offering a “more robust” virtual learning program will also free parents from monitoring lessons.
“We really want to emphasize the importance of more live interaction, so that hopefully students will be able to log on in their live session with their teacher, giving parents who are working … the opportunity to focus on their own work, as well,” Cordova said Monday during a live question-and-answer session on Facebook.
The district will offer two choices to families this fall: an all-virtual learning option and an in-person option. The in-person option will actually start remotely. Coronavirus cases are climbing in Colorado, and district leaders decided last week that it was safer for students to start online and then transition to in-person learning if conditions improve.
Families must choose an option when they register their children before Aug. 24, the first day of school. That choice is binding for the fall semester, district officials said, though school principals can make exceptions. A previous survey found that most families preferred in-person learning but nearly a quarter of families preferred an online option, a portion that may increase if coronavirus cases continue to rise.
Students enrolled in the in-person option will learn remotely for at least two weeks. The earliest school buildings would open would be Sept. 8, district officials said.
But students enrolled in the virtual option will stay virtual for the entire fall semester. After that, district officials said families can switch to the in-person option if they want — or vice versa. Students who choose the virtual option will not lose their seat at their school.
The district said that virtual education will likely be taught by teachers who requested that assignment. Some teachers asked to teach virtually because they have underlying health conditions that would put them at greater risk of COVID complications, or because they live with a family member who does.
Most virtual classes will be held “live,” meaning students will log on at a certain time to watch their teacher deliver a lesson. That’s a change from the spring, when the district emphasized that teachers should prerecord their lessons so that students — and parents juggling work and child care — could watch the lessons whenever it was most convenient.
But district officials said that as time went on, they learned the importance of teachers being face-to-face with their students, if only virtually.
Chris Christoff, who teaches kindergarten and first grade, said that when learning first shifted online in March, he spent his entire spring break making a website for his class with prerecorded videos of him reading books aloud and explaining math problems.
But by May, Christoff said he was spending up to six hours a day in front of his computer with students. Sometimes he’d just be watching quietly while they worked. That kind of support worked better for most of his students than the prerecorded videos, he said.
Another improvement, district officials said, is that the district has narrowed to two the number of online learning platforms that students and teachers will use: SeeSaw for kindergarten through fifth grade and Schoology for grades 6 through 12. The aim is to cut down on confusion and provide consistency for students, parents, and teachers, Cordova said.
The district will also have consistent grading and attendance policies for the virtual program. Elementary school teachers will be expected to take attendance every day, while middle and high school teachers will be expected to take attendance every class period, according to a new 37-page remote learning plan released by the district.
A student will be counted as present if he or she attends a live lesson or online meeting with their teacher, completes an assignment, or emails, texts, or calls their teacher, the plan says.
Students attending school virtually will be graded the same as students attending in person, the plan says. Teachers will not give F grades to students in middle and high school. Instead, students will receive an incomplete for the course, which won’t impact their GPA.
The virtual option will use district-provided curriculum, the plan says. That may differ from the curriculum at a student’s school since the district allows schools to choose their own.
Students learning English as a second language who choose the 100% virtual option will continue to receive specialized services remotely, the plan says.
For students with disabilities, the plan says the district will “work collaboratively with families to determine needs and services in the remote learning environment.” Some services, such as occupational or physical therapy, proved difficult to deliver online last spring.
Changing public health conditions, such as a surge in coronavirus cases, will be less disruptive for the virtual students. Students attending school in person, however, may have to switch to remote learning if a classmate or teacher tests positive for COVID. That remote learning would be different than the districtwide 100% virtual option.
All students choosing to go to classrooms in person may also have to switch to a hybrid of remote and in-person learning if officials deem it safer, the plan says.
If that happens, students would attend school in person on an “AA/BB” schedule. One group would attend in person on two consecutive A days, while another group would attend on two consecutive B days.
The fifth day of the week would be reserved for students with disabilities, those in the early stages of learning English, and any other students who need extra help.
Students would learn remotely on the days they’re not in school in person. Schools will assign siblings to the same A or B group to make it easier for families, the plan says.
Author: Melanie Asmar
Hindustani language – Wikipedia
The word Hindustani in Devanagari, Nastaliq and Kaithi scripts
- Central Zone
- Western Hindi
- Kauravi (rural)
- Dakhini (Deccani)
- Devanagari (Hindi)
- Perso-Arabic (Urdu alphabet) (Urdu)
- Latin-Roman (Unofficial for Hindi-Urdu)
- Hindi Braille
- Urdu Braille
- Kaithi (Historical)
- standardised Hindi as taught in schools throughout India (except some states such as Tamil Nadu),
- formal or official Hindi advocated by Purushottam Das Tandon and as instituted by the post-independence Indian government, heavily influenced by Sanskrit,
- the vernacular dialects of Hindustani as spoken throughout India,
- the neutralised form of Hindustani used in popular television and films, or
- the more formal neutralised form of Hindustani used in television and print news reports.
- A sizeable population in Afghanistan, especially in Kabul, can also speak and understand Hindi-Urdu due to the popularity and influence of Bollywood films and songs in the region, as well as the fact that many Afghan refugees spent time in Pakistan in the 1980s and 1990s.
- Fiji Hindi was derived from the Hindustani linguistic group and is spoken widely by Fijians of Indian origin.
- Hindustani was also one of the languages that was spoken widely during British rule in Burma. Many older citizens of Myanmar, particularly Anglo-Indians and the Anglo-Burmese, still know it, although it has had no official status in the country since military rule began.
- Hindustani is also spoken in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, where migrant workers from various countries live and work for several years.
- Devanagari: यह कितने का है?
- Nastaliq: یہ کتنے کا ہے؟
- Romanization: Yeh kitné ka hai?
- English: How much is it?
- Hindustan (Indian subcontinent)
- Languages of India
- Languages of Pakistan
- List of Hindi authors
- List of Urdu writers
- Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanisation
- Asher, R. E. 1994. “Hindi.” Pp. 1547–49 in The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
- Bailey, Thomas G. 1950. Teach yourself Hindustani. London: English Universities Press.
- Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay.
- Dua, Hans R. 1992. “Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language.” In Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations, edited by M. G. Clyne. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1.
- Dua, Hans R. 1994a. “Hindustani.” Pp. 1554 in The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
- —— 1994b. “Urdu.” Pp. 4863–64 in The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
- Rai, Amrit. 1984. A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X
- Henry Blochmann (1877). English and Urdu dictionary, romanized (8 ed.). Calcutta: Printed at the Baptist mission press for the Calcutta school-book society. p. 215. Retrieved 6 July 2011.the University of Michigan
- John Dowson (1908). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language (3 ed.). London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., ltd. p. 264. Retrieved 6 July 2011.the University of Michigan
- Duncan Forbes (1857). A dictionary, Hindustani and English, accompanied by a reversed dictionary, English and Hindustani. archive.org (2nd ed.). London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company. p. 1144. OCLC 1043011501. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
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- Bolti Dictionary (Hindustani)
- Hamari Boli (Hindustani)
- Khan Academy (Hindi-Urdu): academic lessons taught in Hindi-Urdu
- Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani, khaRî bolî
- Hindustani FAQ at the Wayback Machine (archived 27 October 2009)
- Hindustani as an anxiety between Hindi–Urdu Commitment
- Hindi? Urdu? Hindustani? Hindi-Urdu?
- Hindi/Urdu-English-Kalasha-Khowar-Nuristani-Pashtu Comparative Word List
- GRN Report for Hindustani
- Hindustani Poetry
- Hindustani online resources
- National Language Authority (Urdu), Pakistan (muqtadera qaumi zaban)
Official language in
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Delhlavi/Kauravi) is the native language
Main article: Urdu
We may now define the three main varieties of Hindōstānī as follows:—Hindōstānī is primarily the language of the Upper Gangetic Doab, and is also the lingua franca of India, capable of being written in both Persian and Dēva-nāgarī characters, and without purism, avoiding alike the excessive use of either Persian or Sanskrit words when employed for literature. The name ‘Urdū’ can then be confined to that special variety of Hindōstānī in which Persian words are of frequent occurrence, and which hence can only be written in the Persian character, and, similarly, ‘Hindī’ can be confined to the form of Hindōstānī in which Sanskrit words abound, and which hence can only be written in the Dēva-nāgarī character.
Hindustani, in its standardised registers, is one of the official languages of both India (Hindi) and Pakistan (Urdu).
Author: Authority control
- Western Hindi
- Central Zone