Ingredients dropped off, sewing patterns delivered: Chicago students earning stipends through online summer program

Ingredients dropped off, sewing patterns delivered: Chicago students earning stipends through online summer program

More than 10,000 Chicago teens could earn stipends this summer for participating in After School Matters programs, now in their 30th year. Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of reduced recovery opportunities on health, associated with chronic internal workload (ie, during work) and external workload (ie, following work).

Methods Data from two consecutive surveys (2013 and 2016) from the Norwegian Living Conditions Survey on Work Environment were used. To assess a dose–response association between workload and health, self-reported ratings of internal workload (ie, having too much to do and skipping lunch breaks during work) and external workload (ie, using mobile technology for work-related issues during leisure time) over the two time periods were divided into tertile groups representing low, medium and high workload. Anxiety, depression, physiological and psychological fatigue and sleep were assessed as outcome symptoms.

Results Chronic medium levels of internal workload were associated with psychological fatigue (OR=2.84, 95% CI 1.75 to 4.62) and physical fatigue (OR=1.85, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.63), and high internal workload was associated with psychological fatigue (OR=7.24, 95% CI 4.59 to 11.40), physical fatigue (OR=4.23, 95% CI 3.06 to 5.83) and sleep problems (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.05). Chronic external high workload was only associated with psychological fatigue (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.22) and with physical fatigue problems (OR=1.47, 95% CI,1.09–1.98) when the data were adjusted for age, gender, education level, job autonomy and occupational status.

Conclusions This study emphasises that individuals who chronically experience high workload are at an increased risk for reporting psychological and physical fatigue, and sleep problems. Nintendo announced three more free SNES and NES games for Nintendo Switch Online subscribers. Donkey Kong Country, Natsume Championship Wrestling, and The Immortal will be free on July 15th. You need an active Switch Online subscription to play the free classic games. Looking for New Navy Exchange coupon & promo code? Currently there’re 11 Navy Exchange coupon code available on HotDeals. Tested and updated daily. The 75th annual Howard County Fair, originally scheduled for Aug. 8 to 15, has been canceled due to the coronavirus pandemic, the Howard County Fair board of directors announced Wednesday. Now that so many are working from home, more people are considering moving out of the city. The pandemic has sent enough New Yorkers to the exits to shake up the area’s housing market.

This summer, incoming Lane Tech senior Jasmin Aquino is sewing a fanny pack.

Enamored with fashion design since childhood, Jasmin finally learned to sew clothing through an After School Matters program in 2017. She’s since made jumpsuits, a floor-length gown, shirts, backpacks, and recently, masks for friends and family to wear during the coronavirus pandemic.

Knowing how serious the virus is and how cautious people need to be, Jasmin said shifting the summer program online offers students like her a chance to earn a bit of money and do something they love from home.

More than 10,000 Chicago teens could earn stipends this summer for participating in After School Matters programs, now in their 30th year. Close to 17,000 applied for a spot in one of more than 500 programs, which began Monday. Summer students earn participation stipends ranging from $336 to $850, depending on the program’s complexity, time commitment and level, such as apprenticeship and internship, said Chief Program Officer Melissa Mister.

Programs are also offered during the school year. Funding for the nonprofit comes from the city and state, the private sector and individual donors. In fiscal year 2019, more than half its revenue came from government grants, according to the organization.

After School Matters chef Gloria Hafer, center, walks into the dining room where instructors Elisa Louden, 19, left, and Adriana Alvarado, 24, monitor questions from students who are learning online.

After School Matters chef Gloria Hafer, center, walks into the dining room where instructors Elisa Louden, 19, left, and Adriana Alvarado, 24, monitor questions from students who are learning online. (Jose M. Osorio / Chicago Tribune)

Though the stipends are paid in installments to encourage consistent participation, Mister said program leaders believe in “compassion over compliance,” understanding many teens need to help with babysitting or other home responsibilities, or contribute financially.

“The stipend really is about communicating to the kids, it empowers them, reinforces the value of their time and efforts,” Mister said. “‘Your hard work means something and it’s important,’ and kids need the opportunity to earn money whether it’s to meet their own needs, remove barriers to participation.”

For the fanny pack, Jasmin’s instructor already sent a pattern and fabric, selecting prints in shades of blue, her favorite color, and of the Disney princess Jasmine.

Though she’ll miss the in-person conversations and “calming vibe” of class, she’s still looking forward to learning more creative skills this summer.

“I love the idea of turning something completely normal into something extravagant,” Jasmin said.

Skills she’s learned through the program made her realize what she wants for a career, and she has started looking into colleges with fashion majors. With the stipend, she’s been able to put money aside for college and living expenses, knowing she wants to go somewhere out of state. She’s also a cashier at Target and worked about 15 hours a week during the school year.

In Beverly, Victor Davis is in his fourth year of After School Matters’ Leadership Council program. Entering his senior year in the finance pathway at Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences, Victor wants to continue studying finance and become a CEO, with particular interest in tech branding. A problem-solver who loves figuring out how to finish a task most efficiently, Victor said he’s inspired by innovations from Elon Musk and Google, but lately has also been moved by businesses helping the community. In addition to telling his mom his ideas all the time, he said he writes them down in a journal.

Victor said the program “also gave me a chance to learn that what you should do in a career is something that you like to do and get paid for it.”

As After School Matters chef Gloria Hafer, not pictured, teaches students online how to make lasagna roll-ups, instructors Adriana Alvarado, 24, left, and Elisa Louden, 19, assist. Adriana and Elisa help answer some questions for students and help set up laptops for online learning.

As After School Matters chef Gloria Hafer, not pictured, teaches students online how to make lasagna roll-ups, instructors Adriana Alvarado, 24, left, and Elisa Louden, 19, assist. Adriana and Elisa help answer some questions for students and help set up laptops for online learning. (Jose M. Osorio / Chicago Tribune)

As a 2019 George Washington High School graduate, Elisa Louden is excited to be helping her former instructor, chef Gloria Hafer. Louden now attends the Washburne Culinary Institute at Kennedy-King College.

She noted the pandemic has caused significant job losses, and with more parents out of work, the money teens earn may be of extra help this year.

“I relied on the stipends to support my family when I was in high school and even now to help pay for school, groceries …” she said.

Since she was 8 years old, cooking has been her passion. When budget cuts affected the culinary arts program at her high school, she sought another way to pursue her goals.

Instructors can play an important role in teens’ lives, Louden said.

“Chef Gloria has really been an icon for me, and I hope now that I am an instructor, I will be able to do the same and motivate my teens daily,” she said.

Getting the inside perspective on what Hafer dealt with when Louden was a student has been humbling, she said.

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The week before summer programs officially started, Hafer spent hours weaving through the city, delivering more than 200 packages of ingredients to her students.

“I am going from 13400 south to 800 north, so from one end of the city to the other,” said Hafer, who lives in Chicago’s far southeastern East Side neighborhood.

Her six-week recipe plan uses the perishable ingredients early on, and everything can be made at home using minimal supplies, she said.

“Youth are fun because they’re inquisitive, and they want to learn,” she said.

But she’s also enjoyed teaching adults, some who never had the opportunity to learn how to cook: “When in the kitchen learning how to cook, 99% of the time I don’t care if they’re 14 years old or 75 years old, they’re asking the same questions, which is fun.”

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Source: www.chicagotribune.com

Author: Hannah Leone


Recovery from work: testing the effects of chronic internal and external workload on health and well-being

Recovery from work: testing the effects of chronic internal and external workload on health and well-being

Recovery from work: testing the effects of chronic internal and external workload on health and well-being

  • http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8483-1797Mark Cropley1,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7293-349XLeif W Rydstedt2,
  • David Andersen2
  • 1School of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
  • 2Department of Psychology, Norwegian Inland University of Applied Sciences, HHS Elverum, Norway
  • Correspondence to Leif W Rydstedt, Department of Psychology, Norwegian Inland University of Applied Sciences, HHS Elverum, Postboks 400 2418 Elverum, Norway; Leif.Rydstedt{at}inn.no
  • Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of reduced recovery opportunities on health, associated with chronic internal workload (ie, during work) and external workload (ie, following work).

    Methods Data from two consecutive surveys (2013 and 2016) from the Norwegian Living Conditions Survey on Work Environment were used. To assess a dose–response association between workload and health, self-reported ratings of internal workload (ie, having too much to do and skipping lunch breaks during work) and external workload (ie, using mobile technology for work-related issues during leisure time) over the two time periods were divided into tertile groups representing low, medium and high workload. Anxiety, depression, physiological and psychological fatigue and sleep were assessed as outcome symptoms.

    Results Chronic medium levels of internal workload were associated with psychological fatigue (OR=2.84, 95% CI 1.75 to 4.62) and physical fatigue (OR=1.85, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.63), and high internal workload was associated with psychological fatigue (OR=7.24, 95% CI 4.59 to 11.40), physical fatigue (OR=4.23, 95% CI 3.06 to 5.83) and sleep problems (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.05). Chronic external high workload was only associated with psychological fatigue (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.22) and with physical fatigue problems (OR=1.47, 95% CI,1.09–1.98) when the data were adjusted for age, gender, education level, job autonomy and occupational status.

    Conclusions This study emphasises that individuals who chronically experience high workload are at an increased risk for reporting psychological and physical fatigue, and sleep problems.

    • Workplace
    • work stress
    • psychological stress
    • employment
    • epidemiology of chronic diseases
    • heart disease
    • methodology
    • mortality

    This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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    • Workplace
    • work stress
    • psychological stress
    • employment
    • epidemiology of chronic diseases
    • heart disease
    • methodology
    • mortality

    The need for recovery from work in relation to health and well-being has been emphasised in several psychological models. According to Hobfoll’s1 Conservation of Resources (COR) model, individuals have an innate drive that motivates them to ‘create, foster and conceive’ personal resources. Key resources are those that help to maintain survival, self-esteem and well-being. Work demands are thought to be particularly resource consuming.2 In terms of the Effort-Recovery model, Meijman and Mulder3 argue that during demanding work individuals expend psychological and physical resources in order to complete task requirements. Following demanding work, such resources are depleted, and restored only after a period of rest. Failure to adequately restore depleted resources results in a greater need for recovery, and fatigue, and can lead to the development of health problems.3 4

    Both the COR and the Effort-Recovery models are quite prescriptive, suggesting that recovery naturally occurs in the absence of work. Others have argued that recovery should be conceptualised as a dynamic construct relating to changes in the psycho-physiological state of the person.5 In this perspective, recovery is understood as an active process, and ‘recovery’ can never be fully achieved as there is no actual point when you can identify when someone is recovered.5 Therefore, it is argued that research should focus on recovery as a regulation process.5 Temporarily disengaging from work activities (mentally and physically) throughout the working day may help to rebuild resources, thus aiding the recovery process.6

    It is possible to think of recovery in terms of behaviours that can occur during working hours (‘internal recovery’) and recovery that takes place outside of work during leisure time (‘external recovery’).6 Internal recovery can be obtained through imposed or unscheduled rest breaks, which help to prevent the accumulation of workload and fatigue that builds up during the day. Research has demonstrated that taking small recovery breaks in the afternoon can boost work engagement7 and regular breaks during the day help people keep motivated and energised.8 9 Furthermore, regular recovery breaks can decrease the risk of injuries at work.10 Taking regular breaks throughout the working day has also been associated with increased job performance.11

    Arguably, the most important internal recovery takes place during lunch breaks.12 Taking lunch breaks has been associated with increased energy levels at work,13 reduced fatigue14 and positive affect.11 The positive effects on health, well-being and performance by taking a break seem to be moderated by levels of autonomy.14 While the available evidence suggests that work breaks including lunch breaks are generally associated with greater health, well-being15 and work performance issues,11 16 17 this conclusion is based on a small number of studies and there is a clear lack of longitudinal research in this area.

    Mobile technology has revolutionised the way people work. By the use of smartphone and tablets, it has become relatively easy over recent years to stay connected to work and to work pretty much anywhere.18 This enables workers to be contacted outside of work and to conduct work outside their contractual hours, which has generally been thought to impede recovery as it places similar demands on the psycho-physiological systems that were activated during work.2 5 Occasionally working without a break and outside scheduled hours is unlikely to have a long-term impact on health, but habitually working during one’s leisure time in order to fulfil work demands is likely to increase the risk of chronic fatigue, exhaustion and other health issues.19

    Geurts and Sonnetag6 argue that both internal and external recovery are necessary prerequisites for maintaining health and that ‘incomplete recovery is an important pathway for chronic health impairment’. Although both internal and external recovery have been identified as being important mechanisms underlying health impairment, it appears that the majority of research has focused on external recovery, and there is a clear lack of knowledge concerning the effects of internal recovery on health.20 21 Indeed, researchers have commented on the particular lack of empirical evidence surrounding the role of lunch breaks as an internal recovery aid.20

    In summary, recovering from the demands of work is vital for health and well-being. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of internal and external workload that impedes recovery, on health, over time (chronically), by using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Living Conditions Survey on Work Environment (2013–2016).I This nationwide survey is representative of Norwegian workers, and one of the strengths of the survey is that the same workers are followed over time, thus allowing the examination of variables within the same individuals over time. We examined the effects of chronic internal workload, defined as having too much work to do and skipping breaks during the working day, and chronic external workload, defined as using technology for work purposes during leisure time, on health and well-being. Five distress symptom outcomes were examined: anxiety, depression, physical fatigue, psychological fatigue and sleep problems.

    The data were provided by Statistics Norway’s (SSB) Levekårundersøkelsen om Arbeidsmiljø 2013 and 2016 (The Living Conditions Survey) on Working Conditions and Working Environment.II This survey is conducted approximately every 3 years, and the data are representative of the Norwegian population. Data were collected through telephone interviews in the period from April 2013 to January 2014, for the 2013 survey, and in the period from April 2015 to January 2016 for the 2016 survey. The 2013 surveyIII contained 10 875 individuals; however, by including only those reporting to work 25 hours or more, and between the ages of 17–67 years, the sample was reduced to 4758 individuals. Of these 4758 individuals, 3186 (70%) responded to the follow-up survey in 2016. Due to missing/incomplete data, the final sample size for the internal workload group was n=1715, and n=1760 for the external workload group. The sample characteristics are reported in table 1.

    Table 1

    Demographic characteristics (mean, SD or observations) and the distress variables (mean, SD) for internal workload (n=1715) and external workload (n=1760)

    Internal workload was assessed using the following three items: (1) Do you have so much to do that you work skip lunch, (2) How often is it necessary to work at a high pace? and (3) How often do you have too much to do? Items were rated on a 5-point scale with 5=very often or always, 4=somewhat often, 3=occasionally, 2=rarely and 1=very rarely or never. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) of this factor was 0.71 (2013) and 0.70 (2016). External recovery was assessed using the following three items: (1) How often are you contacted outside of work time? (2) How often do you read and answer emails outside of working hours? and (3) How often do you keep updated on electronic information for work outside of working hours (eg, blogs, social media, etc). Internal workload items are adapted from the Job Content Questionnaire.22 The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) of this factor was 0.74 (2013) and 0.72 (2016).

    Experience of distress was assessed in 2016, using the following symptoms: anxiety, depression, physical fatigue, psychological fatigue and sleep problems. Anxiety, depression and sleep items were rated on a 4-point scale from 1=not bothered, 2=little bothered, 3=quite bothered and 4=very bothered over the previous month. Ratings were recoded into dummy variables; values 1 through 2 coded as low, and 3 through 4 being high for each symptom. Physical and psychological fatigue were rated on a 5-point scale from 1=daily, 2=sometimes per-week, 3=once a week, 4=sometime per-month and 5=never/almost never. Similar variables have previously been used as distress symptoms in several other studies that have examined the consequences of insufficient external recovery.23–26 The prevalence and percentages of the distress symptoms are presented in online supplementary tables S1 and S2.

    Education level was classified by the Norwegian standard (0–8) grouping for education level,27 where 0=no education, 1–3=mandatory education, 4–5=further vocational education and 6–8=higher education.

    Occupational classification was based on the Norwegian standard for occupational classification28 where 1=managerial positions, 2=academic/professional positions (requiring higher education), 3=professions requiring college level of education, 4=office/administrative profession, 5=sales and service professions, 6=farming, fishing, etc, 7=skilled crafts, 8=machine operators and transport workers, and 9=unskilled professions.

    Levels of autonomy at work were assessed using the mean of the following three items: (1) to what extent can you decide how to work, (2) to what extent can you decide your work pace and (3) to what extent can you influence decisions that are important to you at work. Items were rated on a 5-point scale with 5=a very high degree, 4=a high degree, 3=to some degree, 2=to a small degree and 1=a very small degree. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) of this factor was 0.70 (2013) and 0.72 (2016). Internal workload and job autonomy items are adapted from the Job Content Questionnaire.22

    To examine the association between workload and distress symptoms (anxiety, depression, physical fatigue, psychological fatigue and sleep problems) at 2016, ratings of internal and external workload made at 2013 and 2016 were divided into tertiles (low, medium, high, using the 2013 cut-offs). Thus, three groups were formed representing individuals who chronically reported either low, medium and high workload (internal or external) at 2013 and 2016. Individuals who changed exposure group, for example, from high to low, were omitted from the analysis. This resulted in a loss of 1471 individuals for internal workload and 1426 individuals for external workload. For each set of analysis, the low workload group was used as the comparison against the medium and high workload groups. For each symptom, crude ORs were initially calculated using logistic regression analysis, and then age, gender, education level, job autonomy and occupational position (entered as a ranked categorical variable broken into dummies) were included as covariates. For completeness, we also report a separate set of analysis (online supplementary tables S3 and S4) where we report the association between the average measure of workload between 2013 and 2016, and distress symptoms. This resulted in an increased number of participants available for analysis (internal workload n=2989, external workload n=3186).

    Table 1 reports the demographic characteristics and the mean and SD of the study variables. Table 2 summarises the crude and adjusted ORs for internal recovery. As can be seen in table 2, medium and high workload exposure increased the risk of reporting psychological and physical fatigue, with the risk greater in the group reporting high workload. Specifically, for psychological fatigue, the ORs for the medium exposure group was 2.84, and 7.24 for the high exposure, and 1.85 and 4.23, respectively, for physical fatigue. The OR for sleep problems was 1.81 for the high internal workload group. After adjustment for age, gender, education level, job autonomy and occupational position, the ORs decreased slightly, but the overall pattern of the results remained comparable.

    Online supplementary table S3 summarises the crude and adjusted ORs for internal workload based on the data from the averaged measure of workload between 2013 and 2016, and distress symptoms. The ORs for the medium exposure group was 1.36 for anxiety, 2.43 for psychological fatigue and 1.76 for physical fatigue. For the high exposure group, the ORs was 1.47 for anxiety, 4.56 for psychological fatigue, 3.22 for physical fatigue and 1.66 for sleep problems. After adjusting for age, gender, education level, job autonomy and occupational position, the ORs for the medium exposure group was 2.14 for psychological fatigue and 1.84 for physical fatigue; the ORs for the high exposure group was 1.42 for anxiety, 3.80 for psychological fatigue, 3.78 for physical fatigue and 1.57 for sleep problems. After adjusting for age, gender, education level, job autonomy, occupational position and distress symptoms reported at 2013, psychological fatigue (ORs=1.85 and 3.04) and physical fatigue were (ORs=1.53 and 2.83) were the only distress symptoms associated with medium and high internal workload, respectively.

    Table 3 presents the crude and adjusted ORs for external recovery. Surprisingly, we found no significant dose–response effect of medium exposure for external workload on any of the distress symptoms. However, there was a dose–response effect for high external workload on psychological fatigue, OR=1.65 (adjusted OR=1.77). Thus, chronic exposure to high external workload was associated with increased risk of reporting psychological fatigue. The only other distress symptom associated with high external workload was physical fatigue, but only once the analysis was adjusted for the covariates (OR=1.47).

    Online supplementary table S4 summarises the crude and adjusted ORs for external workload based on the data from the averaged measure of workload between 2013 and 2016, and distress symptoms. For psychological fatigue, the ORs for the medium exposure group was 1.40 and 1.58 (OR=1.41 after adjusting for age, gender, education level, job autonomy, occupational position and distress symptoms reported at 2013). Physical fatigue was the only other distress symptom associated with medium (OR=1.24) and high (OR=1.32) external workload, but only once the analysis was for adjusted for age, gender, education level, job autonomy and occupational position.

    The aim of the present study was to explore the health-related factors within individuals who persistently fail to take recovery opportunities, during or after work. Our analysis revealed that high internal workload—defined as habitually having too much work to do during working hours—was associated with increased psychological fatigue, physical fatigue and sleep problems. Specifically, individuals who regularly experienced high internal workload were found to be seven times more likely to report psychological fatigue, four times more likely to report physical fatigue and nearly twice as likely to report sleep problems, relative to those that did not. Interestingly, the association between internal workload and the distress symptoms remained after adjustments for the covariates including job autonomy and occupational position.

    Conceivably, the greatest recovery occurs during our free/leisure time; however, technology has made it increasingly more difficult for workers to detach from work as the boundary between work and home is now more permeable. The ease of checking work emails, social media or various Twitter/news feeds, in addition to making and receiving phone calls, means that we rarely spend time simply being and relaxing.29 30 Even during breaks within the working day, people check work-related emails. It is thus becoming more common for people to attend to work-related issues during their personal time29 and by doing so, ipso facto, this limits the available time to unwind and recover. Järvenpää and Lang31 introduced the notion of the ‘Empowerment/Enslavement Paradox’. This highlights two contrasting perspectives concerning the influence of technology on well-being. The use of technology allows the worker more flexibility over how they manage their working and home life which could lead to feelings of satisfaction and control.32 Thus, the use of technology may be an insulating factor against high workload and stress and therefore empower individuals. Contrarily, the opposing view suggests that the availability of technology may encourage more work-related behaviour, thus limiting the time to relax. Technology therefore may actually decrease an individual’s feeling of control33 and persistent use of technology for work could reduce health and well-being long term.34 35 Interestingly, there is empirical support for both perspectives and therefore the evidence remains inconclusive.18 In the present study, our findings lend support for the latter hypothesis in that external workload—defined as being electronically connected to work and being contactable about work outside normal working hours—was associated with increased psychological fatigued. Indeed, workers who reported high external workload were 1.67 times more likely to report psychological fatigue relative to those who did not.

    The analysis see(online supplementary material) was recalculated using the average measure of workload between 2013 and 2016, which increased the sample size. Interestingly, even with an increased number of participants, the results were very similar, although with slightly lower ORs. Thus, the effect of workload appears stronger when individuals consistently report the same level of workload exposure overtime.

    Several researchers have commented that there has been a relative lack of research examining internal recovery20 21 and interestingly within this study, lack of internal recovery, that is, high internal workload, was found to be more important in respect for distress symptom reporting that recovery that takes place at the end of the working day. Considering that workers spend approximately a third of their day working, this is an important finding, suggesting that workers who frequently experience a high workload (with the possibility of missing adequate breaks) are potentially putting their health at risk. Although there will be individual differences,36 there is a trend of working through lunch, and this trend needs to be reversed. Interestingly, a longitudinal study reported that the proportion of energy and macronutrients consumed at lunch time has decreased over a 17-year period and that perhaps this is due to people not stopping to have a proper lunch.37

    There are several initiatives aimed to enhance recovery during work, such as lunchtime ‘green exercise’ programmes,38 but these may, to some extent, be dependent on the availability of green space. Perhaps the most obvious way to ensure that workers rest is to make breaks mandatory where possible. This could be achieved by a top-down managerial approach by enforcing a fixed work–rest schedule throughout the day. However, a bottom-up approach through educating the workforce is also needed. The notion of recovering from work during working hours seems to be counterintuitive and a contradiction in terms, but as recovery is a dynamic process,5 scheduling frequent breaks during the working day and encouraging recovery activities should reduce the likelihood of fatigue postwork.14 17 39

    First, the data were collected within one country and therefore the results may not generalise to other countries. Second, although one of the strengths of this study was that the same individuals are followed-up over time, there was a substantial dropout of individuals between 2013 and 2016. While this may be expected to a degree, it should be noted that the difference was greater with regards to the education background of the respondents, with higher education being overrepresented. There was however no statistical difference in age or gender in those who participated in the 2016 survey and those who dropped out. Third, although we demonstrated that chronic internal workload was associated with increased postwork distress symptom reporting, we were unable to address the factors that inhibit or promote recovery in the present study. Indeed, there is a lack of evidence concerning the ideal rest break in terms of timing, length or activity and this would somewhat depend on the nature of the job and the individual. Another limitation relates to our definition of the word chronic. In this study, we define chronic workload, as those who reported the same experience of workload at two time points (low, medium and high), but in reality, workload may fluctuate over time. There are likely to be periods over the 3 years when workload is high, and other times when workload is lower. Due to the date collection methods of the survey, it was not possible to assess workload at other times during the 3 years.

    To control for the possibility of reversed causality—it is possible that individuals with poorer well-being evaluate their workload higher—adjustment for reported distress symptoms at baseline was added in a third step on the analysis. While this weakened the association between workload and the outcome indicators, it may also have been an underestimation of the true effects of the association; it is likely that some participants reporting elevated distress may have had high workload preceding their enrolment on the study. Finally, this study used single-item measures, the use of which may be questioned. However, due to practicality constraints (eg, survey length, repeated sampling over time and sample size), a recent review concluded that single items can provide valid information.40 Notwithstanding these limitations, one of the strengths of this study was that it examined the chronic effects of workload on health and reported the findings of internal and external workload using the same distress measures. In addition, this was a population-based study and individuals were selected from a variety of occupation, therefore increasing representation of the findings. When compared to population studies, the prevalence of common mental health symptoms in specific occupational studies tends to be higher.41 This study also adds to the literature on the role of internal recovery and well-being.

    Most people will find themselves occasionally skipping breaks and working during the evening in order to meet important deadlines or to complete work before they go on leave. In the short term, this is unlikely to have long-term health consequences. However, persistently being exposed to a high workload appears to be associated with increased risk of fatigue and sleep problems. This study was conducted over a period of 3 years, and further work is needed to establish the longer effects and whether habitually experienced fatigue develops into additional health problems over time.

    • The need for recovery from the demands of work has been associated with workers’ detachment from work and well-being. Recovery from work can occur both during the working day, by way of rest breaks (ie, internal recovery), and outside or work, during leisure time, by not working in the evening (ie, external recovery). Recovery can be compromised when workload is high. It remains unclear how the experience of exposure to persistent high workload over time affects health and well-being, and whether similar effects are found for internal and external workload. Most research has focused on external workload and there is a lack of studies that have examined the effects of workload longitudinally.

    • This study showed that chronic workload both during the day and evening is associated with increased risk of reporting psychological fatigue, physical fatigue and sleep problems. Interestingly, the effects on health are particularly salient when recovery opportunities are not taken during the working day. These results highlight the importance of workers needing to take time away from the demands of work by taking regular recovery breaks throughout the day as a prerequisite for maintaining health and well-being.

    Table 2

    Crude and adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of internal workload group (low, medium, high) (2013–2016) on physical and psychological well-being

    Table 3

    Crude and adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of external workload group (low, medium, high) (2013–2016) on physical and psychological well-being

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    Free NES and SNES games coming to Nintendo Switch Online in July 2020

    Free NES and SNES games coming to Nintendo Switch Online in July 2020

  • Nintendo announced three more free SNES and NES games for Nintendo Switch Online subscribers.
  • Donkey Kong Country, Natsume Championship Wrestling, and The Immortal will be free on July 15th.
  • You need an active Switch Online subscription to play the free classic games.
  • There’s seemingly no rhyme or reason to the timing of Nintendo’s additions to its library of classic games for Switch Online subscribers, but three new games are being added this month after a two-month hiatus. The highlight of the July additions is undoubtedly Donkey Kong Country, which was one of the best platformers ever released for the Super Nintendo and helped put developer Rare on the map before they heyday of the N64.

    It’s a good thing that Nintendo picked such an spectacular headliner, because the other games being added to the selection of free games this month are the deepest of deep cuts. On the SNES, Natsume Championship Wrestling is an unlicensed wrestling game based on a conversion of a licensed wrestling game released in Japan. As for the NES, subscribers are getting The Immortal, which is a dark fantasy adventure game that was made for the fifth-generation Apple II. Why we’re getting these instead of the sequels to Donkey Kong Country is a mystery.

    Following the release of Animal Crossing: New Horizons in March, Nintendo has let Sony and Microsoft dominate the headlines with news about their next-generation consoles, but, in case anyone at Nintendo is reading this, one way to get our attention would be to bring N64 games to Nintendo Switch Online. Just a thought.

    Here’s the complete lineup of free NES and SNES games coming to Nintendo Switch Online on July 15th:

  • Donkey Kong Country – Armed with chest-pounding muscle, mighty barrel rolls and awesome vine-swinging skills, Donkey Kong and Diddy Kong set out to face their adversaries, K. Rool and his reptilian crew of Kremlings. Play solo, compete with a friend or play cooperatively in over 100 levels filled with collectibles and hidden bonus levels.
  • Natsume Championship Wrestling– Choose from 12 outrageous wrestlers and bring the pain! With a robust grappling system and over 50 moves to master, experience the most realistic wrestling action of the 16-bit era. Test your might against the AI, or up to two players can compete in exhibition, tag team and round robin matches.
  • The Immortal – Grab your Wizard’s Pack and let your quest unfold as you explore the Labyrinth of Eternity. Delve into the dungeon’s depths to uncover the mysteries of the ancient ruins. Your teacher Mordamir awaits below!
  • There are a variety of payment schemes for Nintendo Switch Online: $3.99 for one month, $7.99 for three months, or $19.99 for a year. There’s also a family plan that costs $34.99, but can support up to 8 Nintendo Accounts. If you want to try it out before you commit to paying, there’s a 7-day free trial as well.

    Source: bgr.com

    Author: Jacob Siegal


    Navy Exchange Coupon July 2020: 30% OFF W/ Navy Exchange Promo Code

    Navy Exchange Coupon July 2020: 30% OFF W/ Navy Exchange Promo Code

    NEXCOM is headquarters for the worldwide NEXCOM Enterprise. Its mission is to provide authorized customers with quality goods and services at a savings and to support Navy quality of life programs for active duty military, retirees, reservists and their families. NEXCOM oversees six primary business lines: Navy Exchange (NEX) retail stores and services; Navy Lodge Program; Uniform Program Management Office (UPMO); Navy Clothing Textile and Research Facility (NCTRF); the Ships Stores Program; and the Telecommunications Program Office (TPO). With the exception of the Ships Stores Program, the NEXCOM Enterprise conducts its operations through a federal non-appropriated funded instrumentality. As such, the command is self-supporting with all profits reinvested in MWR programs and in NEX buildings and equipment. All programs focus on the quality of life entitlements of military service members and their families.

    • Create your Navy Exchange account to get exclusive offers and deals as well as the option to customize your Navy Exchange gift package.
    • You can get extra money off your next order at Navy Exchange by inviting your friend. When you do this, they get 10% off of their first order, and you can get 10% off too!
    • Make sure to check out ‘Today’s Deals’ page. In this page, you’ll find a collection of a Deal of the Day available and the best offers in Navy Exchange right now.
    • Selected items on sale with $10 Off
    • 5% off your 1st order
    • 5% Off Sitewide
    • $15 off $100+ for mynavyexchange.com coupon code
    • Shop now and get 10% Off

    Here you are at the Hotdeals Navy Exchange page. You can see loss of promo codes and deals here, so go and choose one.

    After you choose one code, click ‘Get Code’ and we will lead you to Navy Exchange you only need to pick up the things you want to buy and then open your shopping cart page. There will be a box for you to submit your coupon code so just submit the code and claim it. The code will be applied automatically and the reductions are yours.

    Told you that’s easy!

    Q:Where do I find my tracking information?

    A:Tracking information is located in two places. Tracking information is provided in your shipment confirmation email. You can also locate your tracking information in My Account in your Order History.

    Q:How long do I have to return an item?

    A:Merchandise purchased from myNavyExchange.com can be returned within 45 days of purchase for a refund or even exchange. Diamond jewelry returns may be subject to an IGI appraisal prior to issuing a refund. Exceptions to the 45 day NEX Customer Return Policy are pre-paid cards, music, phone and gift cards, which are not returnable. Pre-recorded movies, music, video games, and computer software are returnable in original unopened factory sealed packaging within 45 days. If defective, they may be exchanged for an identical item.

    Source: www.hotdeals.com


    Howard County Fair canceled due to coronavirus; some events and livestock auction will be held online

    Howard County Fair canceled due to coronavirus; some events and livestock auction will be held online

    The 75th annual Howard County Fair, originally scheduled for Aug. 8 to 15, has been canceled due to the coronavirus pandemic, the Howard County Fair board of directors announced Wednesday.

    “After a much-discussed, difficult decision, the 2020 Howard County Fair has been canceled,” a post on the Howard County Fairgrounds’ website reads.

    The Howard County Fairgrounds have been closed since March when Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan put a stay-at-home order in place to help stop the spread of COVID-19. As businesses and restaurants have been allowed to reopen as some restrictions have been lifted, the fairgrounds have remained closed to the public.

    Popular events such as the Maryland Sportsman and Outdoor Show, Howard County Antique Farm Equipment Auction, and Maryland Sheep and Wool Festival have already been canceled or postponed in the past few months at the fairgrounds.

    “Myself and the board were very much looking forward to this year’s fair. It was going to be our 75th anniversary fair, which would have been a big deal for us. But with all of the events surrounding the COVID-19 virus, we thought it was best for the safety of all to not have the fair activities this year,” Mickey Day, president of the Howard County Fair board of directors, said in an interview.

    “We looked at a lot of options, especially with how to socially distance people. It’s usually very crowded, and that was something we didn’t think we’d be able to overcome,” Day said. “… The concern really changed in the last few weeks because there have been some more outbreaks around the country. We surely don’t want to see outbreaks here, and we don’t want to contribute to that.”

    According to the post, there will be a handful of online events, including the annual livestock auction. However, these will be private events and will require registration.

    There also will be youth livestock shows for young people, including those who had already registered projects with the Howard County 4-H and/or FFA program. The plan is for a series of one-day shows, which would limit the number of participants and animals on the grounds at any time.

    The youth livestock shows will be presented by the Howard County Fair Association with the assistance of volunteers, and they are not affiliated with the University of Maryland Extension or considered a Howard County 4-H sanctioned event, according to the registration website.

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    In an effort to offer a similar opportunity to youth who have projects other than livestock, an online platform has been set up for them to display their 4-H projects to be judged.

    Registration is available at hcfmd.fairwire.com. The deadline for youth livestock shows is July 20 and Aug. 1 for the virtual 4-H indoor entries.

    “We start planning for the next fair one month after the [previous] fair ends. A lot of hard work goes into it. We have hundreds of volunteers who help us put this event on. This is a big let-down for all of us. We dragged this [decision] out as long as we could. It was a very tough decision,” Day said.

    Fairs in Montgomery and Prince George’s counties have already been canceled for this year, in addition to the Harford County Farm Fair.

    Baltimore Sun Media editor Katie V. Jones contributed to this article.

    Source: www.baltimoresun.com

    Author: Jacob Calvin Meyer, Erin Hardy


    New Yorkers Look To Suburbs And Beyond. Other City Dwellers May Be Next

    New Yorkers Look To Suburbs And Beyond. Other City Dwellers May Be Next

    Until recently, Steven Kanaplue and Miriam Kanter were living in a one-bedroom apartment on Manhattan’s Upper West Side with their dog Booey. The pandemic clinched their decision to move to Montclair, N.J.

    Trends often start in New York. The latest: quitting the city and moving to the suburbs.

    If not quite an exodus, the pandemic has sent enough New Yorkers to the exits to shake up the area’s housing market. Longtime real estate agent Susan Horowitz says she has never seen anything like it. She describes the frantic, hypercompetitive bidding in the suburb of Montclair, N.J., as a “blood sport.”

    “We are seeing 20 offers on houses. We are seeing things going 30% over the asking price. It’s kind of insane,” Horowitz says.

    About 12 miles from New York City, Montclair is the kind of suburb that even appeals to demanding New Yorkers. It has yoga studios, restaurants locals can walk to, art galleries, even a film festival. It’s always popular, but now on a completely different scale. “Every last bit of it is COVID-related,” Horowitz says.

    Get A Comfortable Chair: Permanent Work From Home Is Coming

    New Yorkers aren’t the only big city dwellers who have been decamping for suburbs, smaller cities and rural areas. It began with the affordability crisis in cities such as San Francisco, New York and Los Angeles and has only picked up momentum during the pandemic, according to Glenn Kelman, CEO of the national online brokerage Redfin.

    The effects of COVID-19 have made many people “wary of living in close quarters,” he says. On top of that, the freedom to work from home means “a huge percentage of people are now looking further afield.”

    Ditching the city and buying a quiet place away from the crowds takes money. Only the relatively well-off can do it. But low interest rates could make homeownership affordable to more people for whom it has been out of reach — if they’ve maintained their income during the recession.

    Kelman says the preference for single-family homes has increased nationally: Thirty-six percent of searches on Redfin in May were exclusively for single-family homes, up from 28% a year earlier.

    By all accounts, the coronavirus has been a catalyst, prompting people who had been toying with moving to take the plunge finally — like Miriam Kanter and Steven Kanaplue. They’re expecting their first child in September. Kanter works in ad sales; Kanaplue is in risk management. And until recently they were living in a one-bedroom apartment on Manhattan’s Upper West Side with their dog Booey. As the virus spiked in the spring, stepping outside became a nerve-wracking experience. “Coming in and out of the building at least four to five times a day to walk him [Booey] — it was getting really stressful,” Kanter says.

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    They had been planning to move to the suburbs since January. The pandemic clinched it. “Being in the epicenter, the washing of the hands, the nerves of it all. It was pushing us out the door,” Kanter says.

    Out the door to Montclair. In late April, their offer on a Colonial-style house with black shutters and a big front porch beat out four other bids. Kanter says they paid almost 20% above the asking price and thinks they would have been forced to pay even more if they had waited to buy a place. And so on June 1, they moved in and officially became suburbanites. “Everything changed the moment we could let the dog out in the yard,” Kanter says.

    Similar stories are playing out throughout the greater New York area. Since March, around 10,000 New Yorkers applied to change their address with the U.S. Postal Service and moved to Connecticut, according to Hearst Connecticut Media.

    Monica Schwerberg is a real estate agent who works with clients who want to live within two to 2 1/2 hours of New York City, mostly rural areas upstate. “Things have definitely picked up and have gotten pretty wild,” she says. In a busy April, when home shopping typically picks up, she and her colleagues would typically get about 75 inquiries. This April, it was more than 400.

    The option of moving to the countryside has become more viable with remote work taking hold, says Kelman, Redfin’s CEO. “All over the country, folks who had really thought 45 minutes or an hour was the limit to my commute are now willing to commute two or three hours because they’re only planning to come into the office once a week,” Kelman says.

    Millions Of Americans Skip Payments As Tidal Wave Of Defaults And Evictions Looms

    In May, Melisse Gelula and her spouse, Tiffany Wolf, moved from a rental apartment in Brooklyn to the bucolic hamlet of Narrowsburg along the Delaware River in upstate New York. One point of comparison between city and country? “The town of Narrowsburg has a population of about 400, which is less than the building where I lived in Brooklyn, which had about 750 units,” Gelula says.

    For five years, they had been coming to the Narrowsburg house for weekends and holidays. It’s about two hours from the city. Gelula, a wellness expert and media entrepreneur, says the decision to move permanently was partly dictated by finances and the sky-high cost of living in New York. There were other motivations as well. “I needed a place that didn’t look on to other buildings, that looked on to trees,” Gelula says. “For me and my well-being, being in nature is really, really vital.”

    And the pandemic landed with its full force close to home. She saw funeral homes with refrigerated tents and trucks to accommodate the overflow of the deceased. “It made Brooklyn feel a lot different to me,” Gelula says. “I thought maybe this is not the time for us to stick it out, maybe this is the time for us to retreat and come back when New York has had a moment to breathe and heal.”

    Source: www.npr.org

    Author: Uri Berliner


    Ingredients dropped off, sewing patterns delivered: Chicago students earning stipends through online summer program


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